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.NET interview Question for Fresher

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Questions : 1
What is Code Access Security (CAS)? How does CAS work?

Answers : 1

CAS is the part of the .NET security model that determines whether or not a piece of code is allowed to run, and what resources it can use when it is running. For example, it is CAS that will prevent a .NET web applet from formatting your hard disk.

The CAS security policy revolves around two key concepts - code groups and permissions. Each .NET assembly is a member of a particular code group, and each code group is granted the permissions specified in a named permission set. For example, using the default security policy, a control downloaded from a web site belongs to the 'Zone - Internet' code group, which adheres to the permissions defined by the 'Internet' named permission set. (Naturally the 'Internet' named permission set represents a very restrictive range of permissions.)

Questions : 2
What are object pooling and connection pooling and difference? Where do we set the Min and Max Pool size for connection pooling?

Answers : 2

Object pooling is a COM+ service that enables you to reduce the overhead of creating each object from scratch. When an object is activated, it is pulled from the pool. When the object is deactivated, it is placed back into the pool to await the next request. You can configure object pooling by applying the ObjectPoolingAttribute attribute to a class that derives from the System.EnterpriseServices.ServicedComponent class. Object pooling lets you control the number of connections you use, as opposed to connection pooling, where you control the maximum number reached.

Following are important differences between object pooling and connection pooling:

1. Creation. When using connection pooling, creation is on the same thread, so if there is nothing in the pool, a connection is created on your behalf. With object pooling, the pool might decide to create a new object. However, if you have already reached your maximum, it instead gives you the next available object. This is crucial behavior when it takes a long time to create an object, but you do not use it for very long.

2. Enforcement of minimums and maximums. This is not done in connection pooling. The maximum value in object pooling is very important when trying to scale your application. You might need to multiplex thousands of requests to just a few objects. (TPC/C benchmarks rely on this.)

COM+ object pooling is identical to what is used in .NET Framework managed SQL Client connection pooling. For example, creation is on a different thread and minimums and maximums are enforced.

Questions : 3
What is a WebService and what is the underlying protocol used in it? Namespace?

Answers : 3

Web Services are applications delivered as a service on the Web. Web services allow for programmatic access of business logic over the Web. Web services typically rely on XML-based protocols, messages, and interface descriptions for communication and access. Web services are designed to be used by other programs or applications rather than directly by end user. Programs invoking a Web service are called clients. SOAP over HTTP is the most commonly used protocol for invoking Web services.

Questions : 4
What is serialization in .NET? What are the ways to control serialization?

Answers : 4

Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes. Deserialization is the opposite process of creating an object from a stream of bytes. Serialization/Deserialization is mostly used to transport objects (e.g. during remoting), or to persist objects (e.g. to a file or database).Serialization can be defined as the process of storing the state of an object to a storage medium. During this process, the public and private fields of the object and the name of the class, including the assembly containing the class, are converted to a stream of bytes, which is then written to a data stream. When the object is subsequently deserialized, an exact clone of the original object is created.

1. Binary serialization preserves type fidelity, which is useful for preserving the state of an object between different invocations of an application. For example, you can share an object between different applications by serializing it to the clipboard. You can serialize an object to a stream, disk, memory, over the network, and so forth. Remoting uses serialization to pass objects "by value" from one computer or application domain to another.

2. XML serialization serializes only public properties and fields and does not preserve type fidelity. This is useful when you want to provide or consume data without restricting the application that uses the data. Because XML is an open standard, it is an attractive choice for sharing data across the Web. SOAP is an open standard, which makes it an attractive choice.

Questions : 5
Explain SOAP, WSDL, UDDI in brief.Namespace?

Answers : 5

SOAP:-SOAP is an XML-based messaging framework specifically designed for exchanging formatted data across the Internet, for example using request and reply messages or sending entire documents. SOAP is simple, easy to use, and completely neutral with respect to operating system, programming language, or distributed computing platform.After SOAP became available as a mechanism for exchanging XML messages among enterprises (or among disparate applications within the same enterprise), a better way was needed to describe the messages and how they are exchanged.

WSDL :-The Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a particular form of an XML Schema, developed by Microsoft and IBM for the purpose of defining the XML message, operation, and protocol mapping of a web service accessed using SOAP or other XML protocol. WSDL defines web services in terms of "endpoints" that operate on XML messages. The WSDL syntax allows both the messages and the operations on the messages to be defined abstractly, so they can be mapped to multiple physical implementations. The current WSDL spec describes how to map messages and operations to SOAP 1.1, HTTP GET/POST, and MIME. WSDL creates web service definitions by mapping a group of endpoints into a logical sequence of operations on XML messages. The same XML message can be mapped to multiple operations (or services) and bound to one or more communications protocols (using "ports").

UDDI :-The Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) framework defines a data model (in XML) and SOAP APIs for registration and searches on business information, including the web services a business exposes to the Internet. UDDI is an independent consortium of vendors, founded by Microsoft, IBM, and Ariba, for the purpose of developing an Internet standard for web service description registration and discovery. Microsoft, IBM, and Ariba also are hosting the initial deployment of a UDDI service, which is conceptually patterned after DNS (the Internet service that translates URLs into TCP addresses). UDDI uses a private agreement profile of SOAP (i.e. UDDI doesn't use the SOAP serialization format because it's not well suited to passing complete XML documents (it's aimed at RPC style interactions). The main idea is that businesses use the SOAP APIs to register themselves with UDDI, and other businesses search UDDI when they want to discover a trading partner, for example someone from whom they wish to procure sheet metal, bolts, or transistors. The information in UDDI is categorized according to industry type and geographical location, allowing UDDI consumers to search through lists of potentially matching businesses to find the specific one they want to contact. Once a specific business is chosen, another call to UDDI is made to obtain the specific contact information for that business. The contact information includes a pointer to the target business's WSDL or other XML schema file describing the web service that the target business publishes. .

Questions : 6
What is Method Overriding? How to override a function in C#?

Answers : 6

An override method provides a new implementation of a member inherited from a base class. The method overridden by an override declaration is known as the overridden base method. The overridden base method must have the same signature as the override method.

Use the override modifier to modify a method, a property, an indexer, or an event. You cannot override a non-virtual or static method. The overridden base method must be virtual, abstract, or override.

Questions : 7
7. How can we check if all validation and controls are valid or proper?How can we force to run all validation control to run?

Answers : 7

By using Page.IsValid() property we can check if all validation and controls are valid or proper by using Page.Validate we can force to run all validation control to run

Questions : 8
What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?

Answers : 8

Server.Transfer transfers page processing from one page directly to the next page without making a round-trip back to the client's browser. This provides a faster response with a little less overhead on the server. Server.Transfer does not update the clients url history list or current url. Response.Redirect is used to redirect the user's browser to another page or site. This performas a trip back to the client where the client's browser is redirected to the new page. The user's browser history list is updated to reflect the new address.

Questions : 9
What is JIT (just in time)? how it works?

Answers : 9

Before Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) can be executed, it must be converted by a .NET Framework just-in-time (JIT) compiler to native code, which is CPU-specific code that runs on the same computer architecture as the JIT compiler. Rather than using time and memory to convert all the MSIL in a portable executable (PE) file to native code, it converts the MSIL as it is needed during execution and stores the resulting native code so that it is accessible for subsequent calls. The runtime supplies another mode of compilation called install-time code generation. The install-time code generation mode converts MSIL to native code just as the regular JIT compiler does, but it converts larger units of code at a time, storing the resulting native code for use when the assembly is subsequently loaded and executed. As part of compiling MSIL to native code, code must pass a verification process unless an administrator has established a security policy that allows code to bypass verification. Verification examines MSIL and metadata to find out whether the code can be determined to be type safe, which means that it is known to access only the memory locations it is authorized to access.

Questions : 10
Difference between DataReader and DataAdapter / DataSet and DataAdapter?

Answers : 10

You can use the ADO.NET DataReader to retrieve a read-only, forward-only stream of data from a database. Using the DataReader can increase application performance and reduce system overhead because only one row at a time is ever in memory. After creating an instance of the Command object, you create a DataReader by calling Command.ExecuteReader to retrieve rows from a data source, as shown in the following example. SqlDataReader myReader = myCommand.ExecuteReader(); You use the Read method of the DataReader object to obtain a row from the results of the query. while (myReader.Read()) Console.WriteLine("\t{0}\t{1}", myReader.GetInt32(0), myReader.GetString(1)); myReader.Close(); The DataSet is a memory-resident representation of data that provides a consistent relational programming model regardless of the data source. It can be used with multiple and differing data sources, used with XML data, or used to manage data local to the application. The DataSet represents a complete set of data including related tables, constraints, and relationships among the tables. The methods and objects in a DataSet are consistent with those in the relational database model. The DataSet can also persist and reload its contents as XML and its schema as XML Schema definition language (XSD) schema. The DataAdapter serves as a bridge between a DataSet and a data source for retrieving and saving data. The DataAdapter provides this bridge by mapping Fill, which changes the data in the DataSet to match the data in the data source, and Update, which changes the data in the data source to match the data in the DataSet. If you are connecting to a Microsoft SQL Server database, you can increase overall performance by using the SqlDataAdapter along with its associated SqlCommand and SqlConnection. For other OLE DB-supported databases, use the DataAdapter with its associated OleDbCommand and OleDbConnection objects.

Questions : 11
Differences between dataset.clone and dataset.copy?

Answers : 11

Clone - Copies the structure of the DataSet, including all DataTable schemas, relations, and constraints. Does not copy any data.
Copy - Copies both the structure and data for this DataSet.

Questions : 12
What is State Management in .Net and how many ways are there to maintain a state in .Net? What is view state?

Answers : 12

Web pages are recreated each time the page is posted to the server. In traditional Web programming, this would ordinarily mean that all information associated with the page and the controls on the page would be lost with each round trip. To overcome this inherent limitation of traditional Web programming, the ASP.NET page framework includes various options to help you preserve changes — that is, for managing state. The page framework includes a facility called view state that automatically preserves property values of the page and all the controls on it between round trips. However, you will probably also have application-specific values that you want to preserve. To do so, you can use one of the state management options.
Client-Based State Management Options:
View State
Hidden Form Fields
Query Strings
Server-Based State Management Options
Application State
Session State
Database Support

Questions : 13
Difference between web services & remoting? Namespace?

Answers : 13

ASP.NET Web Services .NET Remoting Protocol Can be accessed only over HTTP Can be accessed over any protocol (including TCP, HTTP, SMTP and so on) State Management Web services work in a stateless environment Provide support for both stateful and stateless environments through Singleton and SingleCall objects Type System Web services support only the datatypes defined in the XSD type system, limiting the number of objects that can be serialized. Using binary communication, .NET Remoting can provide support for rich type system Interoperability Web services support interoperability across platforms, and are ideal for heterogeneous environments. .NET remoting requires the client be built using .NET, enforcing homogenous environment. Reliability Highly reliable due to the fact that Web services are always hosted in IIS Can also take advantage of IIS for fault isolation. If IIS is not used, application needs to provide plumbing for ensuring the reliability of the application. Extensibility Provides extensibility by allowing us to intercept the SOAP messages during the serialization and deserialization stages. Very extensible by allowing us to customize the different components of the .NET remoting framework. Ease-of-Programming Easy-to-create and deploy. Complex to program.

Questions : 14
What is MSIL, IL?

Answers : 14

When compiling to managed code, the compiler translates your source code into Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), which is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can be efficiently converted to native code. MSIL includes instructions for loading, storing, initializing, and calling methods on objects, as well as instructions for arithmetic and logical operations, control flow, direct memory access, exception handling, and other operations. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) is a language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The common language runtime includes a JIT compiler for converting MSIL to native code.

Questions : 15
What is strong name?

Answers : 15

A name that consists of an assembly's identity—its simple text name, version number, and culture information (if provided)—strengthened by a public key and a digital signature generated over the assembly.

Questions : 16
What is exception handling?

Answers : 16

When an exception occurs, the system searches for the nearest catch clause that can handle the exception, as determined by the run-time type of the exception. First, the current method is searched for a lexically enclosing try statement, and the associated catch clauses of the try statement are considered in order. If that fails, the method that called the current method is searched for a lexically enclosing try statement that encloses the point of the call to the current method. This search continues until a catch clause is found that can handle the current exception, by naming an exception class that is of the same class, or a base class, of the run-time type of the exception being thrown. A catch clause that doesn't name an exception class can handle any exception. Once a matching catch clause is found, the system prepares to transfer control to the first statement of the catch clause. Before execution of the catch clause begins, the system first executes, in order, any finally clauses that were associated with try statements more nested that than the one that caught the exception.

Exceptions that occur during destructor execution are worth special mention. If an exception occurs during destructor execution, and that exception is not caught, then the execution of that destructor is terminated and the destructor of the base class (if any) is called. If there is no base class (as in the case of the object type) or if there is no base class destructor, then the exception is discarded.

Questions : 17
What is the managed and unmanaged code in .net?

Answers : 17

The .NET Framework provides a run-time environment called the Common Language Runtime, which manages the execution of code and provides services that make the development process easier. Compilers and tools expose the runtime's functionality and enable you to write code that benefits from this managed execution environment. Code that you develop with a language compiler that targets the runtime is called managed code; it benefits from features such as cross-language integration, cross-language exception handling, enhanced security, versioning and deployment support, a simplified model for component interaction, and debugging and profiling services.

Questions : 18
What is the namespace threading in .net?

Answers : 18

System.Threading.Thread How to encode string string ss="pervej"; string encode=Convert.ToBase64String(System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(ss)); Response.Write(encode);

Basic .NET, ASP.NET, OOPS and SQL Server Interview questions and answers.

  • What is IL code, CLR, CTS, GAC & GC?
  • How can we do Assembly versioning?
  • can you explain how ASP.NET application life cycle and page life cycle events fire?
  • What is the problem with Functional Programming?
  • Can you define OOP and the 4 principles of OOP?
  • What are Classes and Objects?
  • What is Inheritance?
  • What is Polymorphism, overloading, overriding and virtual?
  • Can you explain encapsulation and abstraction?
  • What is an abstract class?
  • Define Interface & What is the diff. between abstract & interface?
  • What problem does Delegate Solve ?
  • What is a Multicast delegate ?
  • What are events and what's the difference between delegates and events?
  • How can we make Asynchronous method calls using delegates ?
  • What is a stack, Heap, Value types and Reference types ?
  • What is boxing and unboxing ?
  • Can you explain ASP.NET application and Page life cycle ?
  • What is Authentication, Authorization, Principal & Identity objects?
  • How can we do Inproc and outProc session management ?
  • How can we windows , forms and passport authentication and authorization in ASP.NET ?
  • In a parent child relationship which constructor fires first ?

MVC ASP.NET Q & A series

  • How to create a simple "Hello World" using ASP.NET MVC template?
  • How to pass data from controller to views?
  • Can we see a simple sample of model using MVC template?
  • How can we create simple input screens using MVC template?
  • How can we create MVC views faster and make them strong typed by using HTML helper?
  • Can we see how easy it is do unit testing for MVC application?
  • What is MVC routing?
  • How can we set default values & validate MVC routes?
  • How we can define actions & navigate from one page to other page?

WCF, WPF, Silverlight, LINQ, Azure and EF 4.0 interview question and answers

  • What is SOA, Services and Messages ?
  • What is the difference between Service and Component?
  • What are basic steps to create a WCF service ?
  • What are endpoints, address, contracts and bindings?
  • What are various ways of hosting WCF service?
  • What is the difference of hosting a WCF service on IIS and Self hosting?
  • What is the difference between BasicHttpBinding and WsHttpBinding?
  • How can we do debugging and tracing in WCF?
  • Can you explain transactions in WCF (theory)?
  • How can we self host WCF service ?
  • What are the different ways of implementing WCF Security?
  • How can we implement SSL security on WCF(Transport Security)?
  • How can we implement transport security plus message security in WCF ?
  • How can we do WCF instancing ?
  • How Can we do WCF Concurency and throttling?
  • Can you explain the architecture of Silverlight ?
  • What are the basic things needed to make a silverlight application ?
  • How can we do transformations in SilverLight ?
  • Can you explain animation fundamentals in SilverLight?
  • What are the different layout methodologies in SilverLight?
  • Can you explain one way , two way and one time bindings?
  • How can we consume WCF service in SilverLight?
  • How can we connect databases using SilverLight?
  • What is LINQ and can you explain same with example?
  • Can you explain a simple example of LINQ to SQL?
  • How can we define relationships using LINQ to SQL?
  • How can we optimize LINQ relationships queries using ‘DataLoadOptions’?
  • Can we see a simple example of how we can do CRUD using LINQ to SQL?
  • How can we call a stored procedure using LINQ?
  • What is the need of WPF when we had GDI, GDI+ and DirectX?
  • Can you explain how we can make a simple WPF application?
  • Can you explain the three rendering modes i.e. Tier 0 , Tier 1 and Tier 2?
  • Can you explain the Architecture of WPF?
  • What is Azure?
  • Can you explain Azure Costing?
  • Can we see a simple Azure sample program?
  • What are the different steps to create a simple Worker application?
  • Can we understand Blobs in steps, Tables & Queues ?
  • Can we see a simple example for Azure tables?
  • What is Package and One click deploy(Deployment Part - 1) ?
  • What is Web.config transformation (Deployment Part-2)?
  • What is MEF and how can we implement the same?
  • How is MEF different from DIIOC?
  • Can you show us a simple implementation of MEF in Silverlight ?

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